"Christian" Cults and Sects

Gary DeLashmutt and Dennis McCallum
The purpose of this paper is to provide a documented overview of the major "Christian" sects, or what some have called cults. We are using the term sects to avoid the much more complicated concept of cults. Specific attention is given to the essential biblical doctrines which they deny. No information is given on the origin and founders of the sects, since this is of relatively minor importance to the apologetic task. Guidelines are supplied to help the Christian worker in his communication of this information. An extensive bibliography is provided and recommended for further study.

Comparing Modernist and Postmodern Educational Theory

Dennis McCallum
Modern and postmodern thinkers differ in their approaches to education. The differences are reflected in their beliefs, goals and values.

Comparing Postmodernism, Modernism, and Theism

Dennis McCallum
A chart outlining the basic differences between modernism, postmodernism, and Biblical theism and how they see human nature, free will, reason, etc.

Contextualization: Building Bridges to the Muslim Community

Jim Leffel
This paper seeks to unite sending churches, mission organizations and field teams on the nature and extent of contextualization among Muslims. We believe that the strongly held consensus of these three parties is essential to long-term effectiveness. We consider models of contextualization as it relates to Islam, critical problems with these models, and strategic application of the model we advocate.

Engineering Life: Defining "Humanity" In A Postmodern Age

Jim Leffel
How should we treat fellow human beings? Then there are legal questions about what should be prohibited or sanctioned in human genetic research. But a more basic and all too often ignored question must also be explored: What is a human person? Indeed, without an answer to this question, moral and legal reflection is almost pointless. How, for example, can we speak of protecting human rights without identifying the bearer of those rights? Recognizing human rights has always been an explosive business. In the 19th century, the issue was to whom do the constitutionally protected "inalienable rights of men" apply? This question so divided our republic that it was resolved only by civil war. In recent historic experience, we can turn to the death camps of Auschwitz or one of the thousands of "family planning centers" in America for further evidence of the scale of this question's lethality - and, tragically, of social ambivalence to it.

Five Worldviews

Dennis McCallum
It sometimes seems as if there are more philosophical and religious views than any normal person could ever learn about. Indeed, there are more than six thousand distinct religions in the world today. However, some people are surprised to find that the world’s religions and philosophies tend to break down into a few major categories. These five worldviews include all the dominant outlooks in the world today.

Optimistic Secular Humanism

Dennis McCallum
Humanism is an ideology based on the centrality of humankind. It is possible to espouse theistic humanism, or even Christian Humanism. In these cases, the term humanism means a concern for humanistic goals, with the understanding that God is the final solution to man's needs. Secular humanism, on the other hand, implies a focus on man apart from God, whether or not God exists.

Postmodernism: The 'Spirit of the Age'

Jim Leffel
Today, Christianity is widely rejected, not because it was critically examined and found wanting, but merely because it claims to be true. Increasingly, American academics regard claims of objective and universal truth as intolerant and uninformed. What accounts for this bizarre and growing consensus? It's called postmodernism. Postmodern ideology rejects the authority of reason and views all claims to objective truth to be dangerous. For these enormously influential thinkers, truth is political and created by "belief communities," not discovered rationally and objectively. That the academic community is experiencing a major ideological revolution is beyond doubt. Like all intellectual movements, postmodernism deeply affects the broader culture. In this article, I will show how popular religious views mirror academic postmodernism, then clarify the challenge of this new consensus for the church.

The Background of Islam

Mark Bair and Dennis McCallum
Muhammad, the founder of Islam was born in Mecca (in modern day Saudi Arabia) in A.D. 570. At that time, the religious setting of the Arabian Peninsula was "a rather primitive polydemonism and worship of stones, stars, caves and trees.1 Around A.D. 610 he came to believe he was receiving visions, which he claimed were from the angel Gabriel. The Islamic scriptures, known as the "Koran," are the "reciting" of the revelations he claimed to have received for the next 22 years.

The Postmodern Critique of Science

Dennis McCallum
Pastor Dennis McCallum charts the postmodern critique of the scientific method.